Lean Training for your lean journey


Muda — 7 Wastes of Lean

The 7 Deadly Wastes (muda)

as defined by Taiicho Ohno (Toyota executive, 1912-1990)

  1. Defects
  2. Overproduction of things not demanded by actual customers
  3. Inventories awaiting further processing or consumption
  4. Unnecessary extra processing (for example, relying on inspections rather than designing the process to eliminate problems)
  5. Unnecessary motion of employees
  6. Unnecessary transport and handling of goods
  7. Waiting for an upstream process to deliver, or for a machine to finish processing, or for a supporting function to be completed, or for an interrupted worker to get back to work...

The 8 Wastes of Lean

In recent years, various authors and experts have expanded the list to their own version of
'the 8 Wastes of Lean', with the 8th waste being one of the following:

  1. Underutilized human potential — skills, talents, and creativity
  1. Unsafe or unergonomic work conditions
  1. Confusion — any uncertainty about the right thing to do.

8 Wastes of Lean — Acronym

If you speak English, then

this Downtime Acronym might help you remember the Deadly Wastes


cartoon - falling



Non Value Add Extra Processing




Eschewed Talents (Underutilized Employees)

If English is not your native language,

then see our instructions for how to translate all of your Systems2win lean training into any language.

Muda, Mura, and Muri

Muda = waste (in its many forms)

Muda waste is often accompanied or caused by...

Mura = unevenness, overburden, strain

Muri = demand that exceeds process and equipment capacities

"The most dangerous kind of waste is the waste we do not recognize." ~ Shigeo Shingo

Office Examples of the 7 Types of Waste

Type of Waste Office Examples of the 8 Wastes of Lean

Products, services, or information that are wrong, incomplete, or late

Office examples: Data entry errors. Missing information. Other types of order entry or invoice errors. Any error that gets passed downstream — only to be returned for correction or clarification. Engineering change orders. Design flaws. Employee turnover. Absenteeism.


Making too much, or too soon

Goal = Deliver exactly what the customer wants exactly when wanted.

Office examples: Printing extra copies. Printing paperwork (that might change) before it is needed. Processing an order (that might change) before it is needed. Storing extra copies in redundant filing systems. Emails to people that don't need to be cc'd.


Waiting for anything... tools, equipment, materials, people...

Office examples: Slow computer speed. Downtime (computer, fax, phone...). Waiting for approvals. Waiting for information from customer. Waiting for clarification or correction of work received from an upstream process.

Non Value Add Processing

Any process steps that do not add value — from the perspective of the customer

Relying on inspections, rather than designing the process to eliminate errors. Extra information. Re-entering data into multiple information systems. Making extra copies. Generating unused reports. Expediting. Unnecessarily cumbersome processes (think financial statement period end close, expense reporting, the budget process...)

Transportation and Handling

Any unnecessary movement of the thing being processed

Office examples: Movement of paperwork. Multiple handoffs of electronic data. Approvals. Excessive email attachments. Distributing unnecessary cc copies to people who don't really need to know.


Piles of anything. Parts, supplies, emails, paperwork, archives...

Purchasing or making things before they are needed (think office supplies, literature...). Things waiting in an (electronic or physical) In Box. Unread email. Any form of batch processing (maybe transactions, reports...)


Any unnecessary movement of human workers

Walking to copier, printer, fax... Walking between offices. Central filing. Searching for missing information. Shifting back & forth between computer screens. Scrolling up and down computer screens. Shuffling through papers.

Eschewed Human Potential

To eschew means
"to purposely avoid"

Employing only people's backs, and not their minds.

Restricting employee's authority and responsibility to make routine decisions. Having highly paid staff do routine tasks that don't require their unique expertise. Not providing the business tools needed to perform and continuously improve each employee's assigned work. Not trusting your people to stop production to stop and fix a problem (jidoka). Not trusting your people to be responsible for the cleanliness, maintenance, and organization of their own work area. Not trusting people with a flat organization structure of largely self-directed teams. Not expecting (and measuring) every person to contribute to continuous improvement.

Unsafe or unergonomic work conditions.

Anything that has potential to harm anyone. Office work conditions that cause carpel tunnel, eye fatigue, chronic back pain... Conditions that compromise the health and productivity of workers in any way.

Confusion. Anything that causes uncertainty about the right thing to do.

Confusing goals. Confusing metrics. Confusing instructions. Missing pieces. Lack of training, coaching, support. Missing or confusing systems.

See more training for Lean Office

How to eliminate the 7 forms of waste

Excel templates to identify and elimate the 7 types of waste

Use your templates

Use your 150+ continuous improvement templates

Consistently-designed Word and Excel templates — with online training for dozens of field-proven lean methods

to identify and eliminate deadly wastes

Cave man

Why re-invent?

Use your online training

Bookmark = muda

Muda: Type one vs. type two

Waste is further categorized as:

1) Type one muda — pure waste

Pure waste. Adds no value and can be eliminated immediately.

"That's embarrassing. Let's stop doing that."

2) Type two muda — "non value add"

Adds no value, but is required for the way things are currently done.

Examples: inspection, paperwork, and most of the above types of deadly waste

Paying Money



Also see the definition and training for 'Value Add Time'

in the online lean dictionary

that ensures that all of your widespread team members
are using the same definitions, formulas, and understandings
of lean terminology as they use their tools for process improvement

User-defined types of waste

In addition to the classic 7 deadly types of waste,

Value Add Pie Chart

several of your Systems2win templates
also empower you to enter your own user-defined subcategories

that your team finds most useful for analyzing
the unique types of waste found in YOUR process

See the online training for your


Process Observation Worksheet Yamazumi template Standard Work template Value Stream Map

Download free trial

Bookmark = how

How to use your

Muda template

aka 8 Wastes template or 7 Wastes template

Find and open your template

Systems2win menu > Systems2win templates

Find and open your Muda Observation template (ObserveMuda.xlsx)
in the same way that you find and open
your other 150+ Systems2win templates.

If you don't yet own your license,
you can download this free template

Save your working document, following the usual
document storage and naming conventions
established by your leaders.

Open a Blank Sheet

Systems2win menu > Open a Blank Sheet

When you're ready to start doing your own real work...

click the button to 'Open a Blank Sheet'

Excel Ribbon bar > Systems2win tab > Open a Blank Sheet

This blank sheet is where you will do your real work

(not on the Sample sheet)

Rename your new sheet


Muda template

You'll get a lot more out of this training if you have your template open in front of you

See the Help and Sample sheets for examples, learning exercises, pop-up help, Excel tips, and other training aids

Muda observation must be done at the gemba

(the place where the work is performed)

Although some very computer-oriented people might prefer to enter their observations directly into their laptop or pad computer...

it is much more common to hand write your observations on your printed form.


There are many ways to observe waste. Here are two popular methods.

Option 1) Stand in a Circle

Your sensei uses chalk to draw a circle on the floor,
and gives you the instruction to stand in that circle
for a specified amount of time (perhaps a half hour, perhaps a half day...)

and then discuss the types of waste that you observe,
and your ideas for how to reduce the wastes you observe.

Option 2) Waste Walk

Launch your team

using the same tools and systems that you use to launch every process improvement team.

Train your people

using the training on this page, and your Muda template.

Ensure that everyone is very clear about your Operational Definitions for what is and is not waste,
perhaps using your Operational Definitions template. (Op_Def.xlsx)


Usually in pairs.

Be sure to follow the common courtesies taught for any type of Process Observation.


Return to the group, and facilitate discussion about what was observed,
and ideas for how to reduce wastes.

Lay out a Plan

Event Action List

Value Stream Plan

Make a plan to implement your chosen counter-measures.

You could add columns to your Muda template

perhaps columns for Ideas, Approvals, Validation, etc.

but it is usually wiser to use one or more of your other templates
to follow up with each of your chosen counter-measures.
Perhaps use your...

Get Results

If you're not going to follow up to get results,

then why start?

Return to Quick Start Training
to quickly learn how to start using your new templates
to identify and eliminate the 7 deadly wastes in your processes








two bikers

Training to get you started.
Tools you won't outgrow.




















menu bottom





If your organization has not yet provided a license, you can download your free trial














Own All 150+ Templates for
Continuous Process Improvement












Your Systems2win templates come with free New User Training to quickly learn features that are common to all 150+ templates



If your organization has not yet provided a license, you can download your free trial

And your Muda template has no expiration. You can use it for the rest of your career as a free gift.