Value Stream Mapping
Training for value stream
analysis and value stream management -
Bookmark = Symbols
Value Stream Mapping Symbols
Get all of these Excel value stream mapping shapes →
To get Help for any
Bookmark = WhatIs or Purpose
What is Value Stream Mapping?
A value stream map is a special type of flow
chart that is used to depict and improve:
Use this popular Lean tool to design any process
Purposes of a Value Stream Management tool
"The most dangerous kind of waste is the waste we do not recognize." ~ Shigeo Shingo
Bookmark = Process
The Value Stream Mapping process
Preparation - Before forming your Value Stream Team
First pass - Understand the Current State
Second Pass - Analyze and Reflect
Third Pass - Improve
Bookmark = Sections
Sections of the Value Stream Map - Examples
Section 1: Header Data
Section 2: Information Flow
The flow of the information that drives the flow of the thing being processed
Section 3: Flow of the thing being processed
Section 4: Lean Metrics - within each process
Section 5: Lean Metrics - between processes
Section 6: Simultaneous processes
Unhide this section if needed
Section 7: Bottom Line Analyses
Section 8: Old State Comparison
Click the button to Import Old State Comparison
Section 9 : Hide/Unhide Rows
There are many rows of pre-programmed Lean metrics that can be quickly hidden or unhidden as needed
Bookmark = ProcessBox
Continuous Flow Process Box
The Continuous Flow Process Box is used to depict any process that has continuous flow.
In other words - as long as the thing being processed doesn't stop flowing,
(Even if there are dozens or hundreds of sub-processes - if it doesn't get stuck in a pile of inventory, or put on a truck, or any other stoppage of flow - then it appears as a single "black box")
The Continuous Flow Process Box is the holy grail of value stream mapping symbols.
Why? Because the ultimate goal of value stream mapping is to maximize flow.
Definition of continuous flow = the thing being processed doesn't stop flowing
Why is flow so important?
Because when your process "flows", you will produce only:
- What is needed
- When needed
- The amount needed
Tips regarding Continuous Flow Process Boxes
If your value stream contains an overwhelming number of flow interruptions - then it is advisable to combine some into a smaller number of Process Boxes - just to improve understandability.
If it is an "As Is" value stream - don't worry too much about capturing every detail, because it will soon change.
If it is a proposed Future value stream - perhaps use Link Icons to drill down to further levels of detail.
If you need to re-align a Process Box, or restore a deleted one, use Snap To Grid to snap it perfectly in place.
also known as a Work Element
There could be immensely complex sub-processes involved, but as long as the thing being processed does not stop flowing for more than a few seconds - the entire process is depicted on a value stream map as a single Continuous Flow Process Box.
A Process Step happens whenever the thing being processed gets handed off, or could be handed off (even if the same person is currently switching hats to perform several different processing steps).
One of the early steps in the value stream mapping process
to itemize Steps
using either pencil & paper, or the special section of your Systems2win Value Stream Mapping template illustrated here
All that a person sees on the value
stream map itself, however, are 2 summary numbers per Process Box:
1) Number of Steps (the orange numbers in row 33 in the screenshot below)
2) Value Add Steps (the red numbers in row 33 in the screenshot below)
As illustrated in the Machining and Welding processes above, any given Process Box might have
Link Icons to drill down to related documents
(such as flowcharts, spaghetti diagram, standard work combination sheet, standard operating procedure, visual work instructions, and other tools for process improvement),
but at the value stream mapping level, we don't really care about many cluttering details. All we need to know for value stream management purposes is that some raw or semi-finished stuff went into the "black box", and some more-finished stuff came out of the "black box" without ever stopping for more than a few seconds along the way.
The ideal goal is to design a process for
continuous flow - so that the thing being processed can flow through it without ever
The absolute ideal Value Stream Map consists of a single Process Box - because the thing being processed would never stop.
All of the following concepts are compromises, because perfect continuous flow is not always easy or even possible.
Bookmark = Subprocess
Sub Process in a Value Stream Map
To roll up summary data from a subprocess - use Link Cells.
(so that the value stream map is automatically updated with the subprocess data every time that the subprocess worksheet is changed)
Bookmark = SharedProcess
Also known as a Monument
For a process that serves more than one value stream...
- Use Shadow Style 13 to visually differentiate a shared process from a dedicated process.
- Brainstorm ideas for future state improvement - because a
shared process is a big compromise to flow.
If there is any way that equipment can be dedicated... get creative.
Many people get confused by Shared Processes
Bookmark = Repeat
Also known as iterative process, repetitive process, repeated process, cyclical process, circular process...
The circular orange arrows indicate a repeat process (the thing goes through this process more than once).
To get the math right for a Repeat Process...
you might need to calculate one or more standard fields - by multiplying some user-defined fields.
For example, using user-defined rows, you might create user fields for:
- Process Time per Rep
- Number of Times Repeated
And then in the Processing Time field...
rather than entering a static number,
you would instead enter the formula...
=Process Time per Rep * Number of Times Repeated
Other symbols inside a VSM Process Box
You can optionally include other symbols within a value stream mapping Process Box, including (but not limited to):
- Warehouse (door)
- Crossdock (inventory comes in and goes out without ever being stored)
- Point of Sale Moment of Truth
- Operator (copy it to visually indicate the number of operators)
- U-Shaped Work Cell
How to find help for any shape on any Systems2win template.
Bookmark = Queues or Buffer
Also known as delays, annoyances, and lost profits
Whenever the thing being processed gets delayed between processes - you will use one of the above shapes in Section 3: Flow of the thing being processed.
Triangles always highlight some form of waste on a value stream map.
Use a green triangle for inventory, or a yellow triangle for any other form of delay
(for example, in an office environment, you might find piles of paper in someone's In Basket).
In the text label beneath each triangle, you will usually describe what
is in the pile represented by the triangle.
For example you would replace the word "inventory" with "widgets", or the word "queue" with "orders".
In Section 5: Lean Metrics - between processes, you will usually enter the quantity in the Inventory (Standard WIP) field.
Buffer and Safety Resources
If your team has strategically designed your value stream to include strategically placed piles of buffer or safety inventory - to protect downstream operations from being starved due to (currently) out-of-control process variances, then use the Buffer or Safety Resource symbol (rather than a triangle symbol).
Use the Buffer or Safety Resource symbol for ANY form of protection against process variance - including (but not limited to):
- Cross-training and departmental borrowing
- Pre-trained workers available as needed (seasonal, retirees...)
- Pre-negotiated availability of overflow facilities
- Customers that agree (in advance) to accept delay to allow load leveling to non-peak periods
- Contingency plans
- Any other form of protection against process variance that might be found in a Lean Manufacturing, Lean Office, or Lean Healthcare environment
Bookmark = CustomShapes or StandardShapes
Most transportation shapes need no explanation.
There are so many modes of transportation, however, that you might
want to add some custom shapes to depict a mode of transportation
used in your unique value stream.
Rather than cluttering our standard template with every form of transportation known to man, we make it easy for you to add your own custom shapes.
In addition to all of the standard value stream mapping symbols that come with your Systems2win template, it is very easy to add your own custom shapes:
Additional Standard Shapes
In addition to the standard palette of value stream mapping symbols,
To get help for any
Bookmark = Arrows
used in value stream mapping and other types of lean process flow charts
Tip: Right-click > Format any line to change arrow head, color, thickness, dash, elbow, straight, or curved.
Red dashed arrow = message flow arrow -
indicating the flow of information.
Every message arrow should have a text box to explain the type and frequency of information,
and can optionally have a shape indicating the mode of information transfer (e.g. phone, FAX, email, etc.)
In these days when almost all information is in some electronic form - we do not suggest attempting to differentiate between electronic and non-electronic information. (Is a FAX electronic? Isn't a telephone electronic?) If you (or your boss) find it valuable to attempt to differentiate electronic from non-electronic information, then you can change the "dash" property of any arrow line - perhaps using a solid red line for non-electronic information. Or simply spell out the mode of communication in the red text box.
Red dot-dash arrow
= Expedite information
Example: The expedite arrow containing the telephone - between Process 3 and 4
To change the "dash" property of any arrow, right-click > Format AutoShape > Colors and Line > Dashed.
Broad white arrow = Shipment to Customers or from Outside Sources
such as suppliers and third-party logistics providers.
Thick black dashed
arrow = Push Arrow
Example: Between Process 4 and 5
The thing being processed is being produced according to some pre-determined (non-Lean) schedule - and then is "pushed" downstream - whether or not the next downstream process has any need for it.
There is almost always a pile of inventory or a backlog queue of whatever is being processed - which is why you will almost always see the triangle symbol on top of a push arrow. (Green triangle for physical inventory. Yellow triangle for a queue of something non-inventory that is being processed.)
Thin black arrow = Flow Arrow
Examples: Between Processes 2, 3, and 4
This is the most common arrow to indicate the flow of the thing being processed.
Dotted black arrow = Expedited Flow
Example: The dotted black arrow containing the airplane - between Processes 3 and 4
In this example, there are usually daily shipments between Processes 3 and 4, but about twice a year, the production manager for Process 3 gets a phone call requesting an urgent plane shipment.
arrow = Kanban flow
Kanbans are a simple way to authorize release of work or materials.
Circular black arrow = Withdrawal
The circular arrow between Process 1 and 2 conveys the exact same information as the symbols between Process 2 and 3 - using one simple symbol as a shorthand shortcut.
Bookmark = Supermarket
A lean supermarket is a place between processes where a standard amount of inventory is stored - in order to supply a downstream process without interruption due to product variations and/or batch sizes.
Keep in mind that the "inventory" in your supermarket might be paperwork forms, or medical supplies, or anything else that can be stored.
Longhand illustration of what is really happening in a lean supermarket
|A value stream mapping supermarket is often the best way to control the flow of production between two processes
that can't be integrated into a single Continuous Flow Process Box, for reasons
Even though some of the above things might be changed in the long term, we often need to work with "the way things are now" - and a Supermarket is a great way to create a relationship that is close to flow between two decoupled processes.
Common abbreviated notation for a Supermarket
Or even more abbreviated
Notice that the open slots of the VSM supermarket always face the upstream supplier - to whom the supermarket belongs.
Bookmark = kanban
What is a kanban?
A kanban is any signaling device that gives authorization and the
minimal instructions needed:
a) for a supplying process to know what to produce, or
b) for a material handler to know what items to replenish
Most commonly, a physical paper card physically placed in a container of parts. When stored items are actually used, the kanban card gets "freed" (perhaps it was in the bottom of the container), and gets put back into a kanban stand where the kanban "requests" are fulfilled in First In First Out (FIFO) sequence.
In some simple situations, the empty container itself might provide sufficient instruction for the upstream process to "fill it up". (And they know what to fill it with, because perhaps of the unique shape or color of the container, or maybe brief instructions are engraved right onto the container.)
A production kanban will typically include information such as part number, batch size, setup time, run time, container type, upstream producing operation, downstream receiving operation, and any other information needed for the supplying operation to know what to produce, in what quantity, and where to deliver it.
What is a signal kanban?
When Change Over Time has not yet been reduced enough to produce a single bin
at a time,
(Hence the symbol used for any kanban signal is the symbol of the upside down triangle.)
What is a sequenced pull ball?
|A sequenced pull ball is a kanban signal used in a special way that
eliminates the need for the supermarket storage of items between processes.
The supplying process produces a specified quantity (often one unit) to quickly fill the customer order.
This only works if the supplying process has a VERY short and reliable lead time.
Why the symbol? Because colored golf balls are the most common kanban signal used for this type of replenishment system.
Bookmark = FIFO or SequencedPullLane or push
What is a FIFO lane?
Also known as a sequenced pull lane
Think of a FIFO lane as a chute that can only hold a specified amount of items. When the chute is full, the supplying process stops producing until the downstream process finishes "digesting" the items in the chute, and there is room in the chute again.
A value stream management FIFO lane could use a kanban card or signal, but more commonly, a FIFO lane is used for more "unusual stuff" that often involves unique work instructions.
FIFO Lanes are used when it is not practical to keep a supermarket full of items between processes. Some reasons might include:
- Too many variations. (Custom items)
- Usage volumes are too low
- Short shelf life
- Too fragile to risk storage
- Very expensive
Between two processes there is sometimes both a supermarket and a FIFO lane - for different types of items.
Rules of a FIFO Lane:
- Process in First In First Out sequence
- When the FIFO lane is full, the supplying process must stop filling
(Perform other activities - most commonly assisting the downstream process)
Sequenced Pull Lane
A Sequence Pull Lane is identical to a FIFO Lane - except that some other sequencing criteria is used other than FIFO.
Perhaps earliest due date, shortest processing time, largest dollar value of customer order... whatever.
A "Holey FIFO" Lane can be a novel solution to allow for expediting. Leave the front of the queue open for rush orders.
What's the difference between a FIFO lane and a simple FIFO symbol?
|You place a simple FIFO symbol inside a Process Box if it is simply processing things in First In First Out order, (with no Lean FIFO Lane that signals the downstream process to stop producing until there is room in the chute again). In other words, you can still have simple FIFO processing in the middle of a very non-Lean "push" system.|
What's the difference between a FIFO lane and a "push" system?
Push means that the supplying work center is building to some central "plan", (e.g. MRP, MPS, DRP, or some other usually-wrong forecast), and then items are "pushed" to the downstream customer process - whether or not they are ready for them - and whether or not they even have space available to store them ...
Although there are valid reasons for building to forecasts and central schedules, if there is any way to implement Continuous Flow - you will reap dramatically superior results in every performance objective that you measure.
You should only resign yourself to accepting a push system as the very last desperate acknowledgement of failure to come up with more creative means of approaching Continuous Flow.
Bookmark = pacemaker
also known as a Scheduling Control Point or pacesetter
A pacemaker Scheduling Control Point is a process that you schedule.
Think of your pacemaker as the gas pedal in your car. It regulates the speed of your entire value stream.
Objectives for designing the Control Points in your value stream:
- You ideally schedule only one process.
- All upstream processes are either FIFO Lanes or PULL systems (such as supermarkets, pull ball systems, or simple kanban withdrawals)
- All downstream processes are ideally FIFO Lanes (but might also be non-Lean push inventory, and/or a finished goods supermarket)
- Both upstream and downstream processes pulse in harmony with the
heartbeat production pace of your one pacemaker process
(this heartbeat production pace is also known as Pitch)
- Your chosen pacemaker process is ideally the Continuous Flow Process Box that is located the farthest downstream (nearest to actual customer delivery) that meets the above criteria.
Use your pacemaker (and only your pacemaker) to determine the Takt Time, Pitch, Pitch Batch Size, and EPEx for the overall value stream. (Tip: Your Systems2win Value Stream Map auto-calculates all of these - making it so much easier for your people to really "get it".)
Bookmark = KaizenBurst
Clouds and Bursts
|We suggest that you use our standard shapes
(accessible from ANY Systems2win template by selecting
Systems2win menu > Copy AutoShape)
to teach all of your users to use the following conventions:
Your As Is State should contain:
Your Target State should contain:
Any objective that appears within a Shaded Cloud on a value stream map should have a corresponding line item in the Value Stream Plan with one of the following:
Clouds and Bursts are standard shapes that are always available to use in any Systems2win template by selecting Systems2win menu > Copy Shapes,
where you will also find other useful value stream mapping symbols.
Can we use our own shapes and meanings for Clouds and Bursts?
Thinking we were inventing something new from scratch, our older templates used clouds to identify problems, and bursts for ideas. But when a popular book did it the other way around, we switched to the way "they" did it.
The important thing is that your viewers can differentiate problems, ideas, and mandates.
Bookmark = ValueStreamPlan
Value Stream Plan
The final tool needed in each round of value
stream management improvement
is the Value Stream Plan template.
Bookmark = Reading
Suggested Reading and Resources
- The Sample and
Help worksheets of your Systems2win
Value Stream Mapping template.
Download free trial
- Value Stream Mapping videos
- High Mix / High Variability Value Streams by Systems2win
- Lean training videos
- Lean Kaizen Training by Systems2win
- Lean Time Definitions by Systems2win