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FMEA template

FMEA tools for Failure Mode Effects Analysis

animated - FMEA what could go wrong?

Why do we need an FMEA?

What could possibly go wrong?

Why FMEA?

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis is

a systematic way to anticipate problems, and to reduce risks

in both:

  1. Design of products and services, (DFMEA)
  2. and the Processes that make or deliver them (PFMEA)

New - Major Upgrade as of May 2019 !!!

with changes inspired by the new AIAG FMEA format

FMEA template

Sample FMEA example: FMEA form (download free trial)


video

FMEA Video

Before you start using your FMEA template, this video will introduce you to some of the most important innovations.


DFSS

Not just one FMEA template

A full suite of DFSS tools
for all steps of the FMEA process

QFD House of Quality Excel template Six Sigma Cause and Effect Matrix Interface Matrix template Process Flow Diagram template

Voice of the Customer Requirements and Kano Analysis DMAIC Customer Segmentation Worksheet Function Requirements DVP&R template

Learn more about each of the FMEA templates in your suites of DFSS Tools, DMAIC Tools, and Standard Work Tools

to help you better accomplish your FMEA goals - to deliver better quality, and reduce risks


Own all of these FMEA templates


to empower your teams
to delight your customers and avoid mistakes


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how

How to find and open your

FMEA form

Find and open your FMEA template

Find and open your your FMEA template

(FMEA.xlsx)

in the same way that you find and open your other 150+ Systems2win templates.

Excel Ribbon bar > Systems2win menu

If you don't yet own a license,
you can download your free trial now.

Save your working document

following the usual document storage and naming conventions established by your leaders

If English is not your preferred language

Switch to your language, just like every Systems2win Excel template.

Open a Blank Sheet

When you're ready to start doing your own real work...

click the button to 'Open a Blank Sheet'

Excel Ribbon > Systems2win tab > Open a Blank Sheet

This blank sheet is where you will do your real work

(not on the Sample sheet)

Systems2win menu > Open a BlankSheet

Rename your new sheet

And then in the dialog window that appears, select which type of sheet to open:

  1. FMEA

    If you choose this, then another dialog window will appear, to get further clarification of what type of FMEA. (see below)

  2. Process Flow Diagram Process Flow template

    Before creating a PFMEA, you will usually first create (and analyze) a Process Flow Diagram to identify the desired deliverables and potential sources of variation that you will then analyze and manage in your PFMEA

    You have the choice of using a stand-alone workbook for your Process Flow Diagram, or including it as a sheet within the same workbook with your PFMEA.

  3. Control Plan

    After taking initial Corrective Actions prescribed in your PFMEA...

    Control Plan template

    the next step is to use a Control Plan template to more diligently control product and process characteristics that have high chance of happening, and/or high severity consequences if they do happen.

    You have the choice of using stand-alone workbooks for your Control Plans, or including them as sheets within the same workbook with your PFMEA.

    It is not uncommon to have multiple sheets for Control Plans that differ for life cycle phases: Prototype, Pre-Launch, and Production.

FMEA - select type

If you chose 'FMEA', then in the next dialog window that appears, select:

  1. Type of FMEA:

    Design FMEA or Process FMEA

    What's the difference?

  2. Data in Single Language or Multiple Languages

    Learn more about features for multiple languages

Optionally Hide Columns

You can hide optional columns that you know that you won't be using.

Not everyone uses the columns for ID, Filter, or the section for User-Defined fields.

You might also temporarily hide columns that you won't be using for a while.

The FMEA process has 7 phases. Some people prefer to temporarily hide columns for future phases - just to have a less cluttered work space.


steps

As you begin using your

FMEA template

Don't skip the first 2 steps of...

The 7 Steps of FMEA

Step 1) Scope Definition

Launch your team

Use the same tools and systems that you use to launch every continuous improvement team. Most commonly, you will use the button to Insert Sheets for:

  1. Team Charter
  2. A Project Plan (which might be a Gantt Summary Milestone Chart, Action List, To Do List, and/or a Bowling Chart)

And fill in your team members on the 'Team' sheet.

Insert Sheet

Basic Training

If the Author of your FMEA template is not yet skilled using Microsoft Excel, then he or she should complete the (free) Systems2win New User Training, and the (free) self-paced online Excel training.

Populate the header fields at the top of the FMEA

Tip: Your Systems2win template has a special 'VC' sheet that allows you to enter header data in one place, and have that header data populate similar header cells in many other sheets in the workbook.

For example, you don't need to redundantly re-enter the same Title and Author on every sheet.

Try it. Enter data in a field on the VC sheet, and see that the same data shows up in the header field on several other sheets.

personalize

Personalize your FMEA template

Even assuming that your leaders have already started personalizing your master template before you got started with your team,

you (as Team Leader) ALWAYS want to personalize your FMEA template to for your Team members, and the Failure Modes, Effects, and Causes that are unique to YOUR FMEA.


structure

FMEA Step 2) Structure Analysis

The second step of the FMEA process is to study and clarify the inter-relationships between:

  1. the Item or Steps (that are the focus of this FMEA)
  2. the Parent system, sub-system, or process (of which this Item or these Steps are a part of)
  3. the components or work elements that Lower-Level building blocks for the Item or Steps of focus

The types of analysis that you do, and the documents that you use are different for:

  1. Design FMEA (to design the product or service)
  2. Process FMEA (to make or deliver the product or service)

Remind me again... What's the difference?

DFMEA PFMEA

Perform analyses, (or gather and review analyses that have already been performed)

to understand the structural inter-relationships between the Item that is the focus of the DFMEA, and the other items or systems that it is a part of, and the components within it

and to begin to understand the functional requirements and characteristics of each.

Perform analyses, (or gather and review analyses that have already been performed)

to understand the structural inter-relationships between the Process that is the focus of the PFMEA, and the items or deliverables that it produces, and the work elements within each Process Step

and to begin to understand the functional requirements and characteristics of each.

Essential:

  • Structure Tree Diagram (a visual Bill of Materials)
  • Boundary Diagram
    to clarify scope boundary, and the physical and logical relationships between components

Essential:

  • Process Flow Diagram
    showing the flow of the product or service through the process, including inputs, outputs, and sources of variation

Tip: Systems2win menu > Open a Blank Sheet, then select the radio button for Process Flow Diagram.

Other source documents might include:

  • Interface Matrix and/or Design Matrix —
    to identify and clarify system interfaces
  • Your Function/Requirements template
  • Function Tree
  • Similar DFMEAs
  • Parameter P-Diagram
    to analyze inputs and outputs, and factors that can affect performance
  • Drawings & schematics
  • Bills of Materials
  • QFD
  • 8Ds, complaints, warranty claims, and other sources of quality and reliability history
  • Tip: You can use the 8D for Failure Prevention Analysis (FPA)

Other source documents might include:

  • Structure Tree Diagram (a visual Bill of Materials)
  • Characteristic Matrix
    to identify which process operations affect which product characteristics
  • The DFMEA
  • Similar PFMEAs
  • Parameter P-Diagrams —
    to analyze inputs and outputs, and factors that can affect performance
  • Drawings and other design documents
  • Bill of Process and/or routings (perhaps from similar processes)
  • Your Function/Requirements template
  • 8Ds, complaints, warranty claims, and other sources of quality and reliability history

Step 2) Structure Analysis (continued)

data

Complete the FMEA form; mostly left to right

FMEA Excel template

Tip: Like every Systems2win template, simply click any gold column header for pop-up help

Help for each column in your FMEA Template

The first 2 columns are different for a DFMEA and a PFMEA.

DFMEA PFMEA

DFMEA: First column = Parent

Enter brief description of the item or system that is the parent of the Item that is the focus of this DFMEA (in the next column)

PFMEA: First column = Parent

Enter brief description of the process or item that is the parent of the Process Steps that are the focus of this PFMEA (in the next column)

DFMEA: Second column = Item

Enter Item number and description
for the Item that is the Focus of this DFMEA

PFMEA: Second column = Process Step

Enter Process Step number and description
for the Process that is the Focus of this PFMEA

Important: The first row of a new Parent, Item, or Process Step is a visual section break. There should be no data in that row for any column to the right. (as you can see in the picture above)

err

FMEA error proofing

Error Checking for all of the first 3 columns shows up in the 3rd column.

If the background color in the Function column turns pink, that means that either:

  1. The Function column (incorrectly) contains data in a row that is the first row of a new section for either of the first 2 columns.

    Remember, the first row of a new section for a new Parent, Item, or Process Step is a visual section break. There should be no other data in that row for any column to the right. And 'Function' is the first 'column to the right' - so that's where the error checking is done.

  2. The Function column contains data, but one or both of the first 2 columns are (incorrectly) missing their repeat data.

    You ask, "What repeat data?"

    Now is a good time to take a moment to watch the video below — to introduce two of the most useful features of your Systems2win FMEA template...

repeat

Important: Don't merge cells!!!

To the human eye or a printer, many cells in your Systems2win FMEA template look like merged cells, but...

they are not merged cells

 

FMEA Training Video

Watch this short training video to learn how to use Repeat Data and Error-Checking to empower your FMEA with two of Excel's most powerful features:

  1. Filter
  2. Pivot Tables

Rather than manually merging cells, you instead...

Copy repeat data in each of the first few columns of your FMEA

Just copy and paste the same data in each cell in the column, until it's time for a new section to start.

And notice that as you use regular Paste, your template is specially formatted to white out that repeat data, and to automatically format the cell borders so that it looks to a human or a printer like one merged cell. But it's not.

This is the single most powerful feature of your Systems2win FMEA template

Open your template right now, (or download your free trial), and Learn how to use it.

FMEA repeat data

Tip: Scroll down below the Print Area to see help for which columns need Repeat Data


function

FMEA Excel template

FMEA Step 3) Function Analysis

The columns in this section are also different for a DFMEA and a PFMEA template.

DFMEA PFMEA

Function To the Parent: DFMEA:
What is this item (or service) supposed to deliver?

Start with an action verb.

Function To the Parent: PFMEA:
What is this step in the process supposed to do?

and What is the item (or service) that is being processed supposed to deliver?

Start with an action verb.

Requirements of this Item: DFMEA

Measurable parameters, specifications, or characteristics that the Function must deliver.

Requirements of this Step: PFMEA

Measurable parameters, specifications, or characteristics that the Function must deliver.

Consider both the item or service being processed, as well as the Steps and Sub-Steps of the process.

ID: (optional) Cross reference number to lower-level related documents, such as Process Flow Diagram, drawings, sketches. Hide column if not used.

Requirements From Lower Level: DFMEA

First specify the 'Child' - which is usually a Component Item or an Interface.

Tip: By first specifying the 'Child' in each of the cells in this column, we are able to convey the same information as the 3rd column in the 'Structure' section of the new AIAG format, but in a much less confusing and space-effective way.

Requirements From Lower Level: PFMEA

First specify the 'Child' - which might be a Component Item or Interface, or might be a Work Element of the Process Step, such as something related to Man, Material, Machine, or Method.

For a DFMEA, Functions and Requirements are derived from your Boundary Block Diagram and Interface Matrix. For a PFMEA, Functions and Requirements are derived from your Process Flow Diagram.

Repeat Data in each of the columns in this section for Function Analysis.

You didn't already forget how to repeat data, did you?


failure

FMEA Excel template

FMEA Step 4) Failure Analysis

After those first few columns, the rest of the columns are the same for either a DFMEA or PFMEA.

Potential Failure Modes

Brainstorm using these 4 Thought Starters:

1) No function
2) Partial, excessive, or degraded function over time
3) Intermittent function
4) Unintended function

Describe Failure Modes in physical/technical terms. (Not customer-observed Effects)

Copy repeat data in this column until there is a new Failure Mode.

Potential Failure Effects

When it fails in this way, what are the potential effects experienced by...

the end customer? production, safety, regulations, other systems, subsystems, components?

Do NOT copy repeat data in this column for Failure Effects, or the next couple of columns for Severity.

Severity

You enter one Severity code per Effect

(don't copy repeat data in the Severity column)

See rating scales on the Rating sheet.

Important: Before you analyze, print, publish, always remember to click the button to 'Recalculate'

recalc

The button to Recalculate

Your Systems2win FMEA template extends the power of Microsoft Excel in ways that can only be accomplished with the use of special buttons.

Most importantly...
Every time that you are ready to analyze, print, or publish your data...
Remember to first click the button to

FMEA - recalculate

Recalculate

which will automatically complete the calculations for 'Max' Severity per Failure Mode and 'Low' Detection per Cause

Potential Cause

Do Root Cause Analysis.

Copy repeat data in this column until there is a new Cause.


risk

FMEA Excel template

FMEA Step 5) Risk Analysis

Occurrence

Per Cause.

See rating scales on the Rating sheet.

This is the last column where you will copy and paste repeat data (until there is a new Cause).

None of the remaining columns need you to copy & paste repeat data.

Prevention and Detection Control Methods

that are currently being used to prevent or detect:

1) the Failure Mode
2) the Cause of the Failure Mode

Detection

Per Control Method.

This is the Difficulty of Detection — with 10 being the most difficult to detect.

See rating scales on the Rating sheet.

Important: Before you analyze, print, publish, always remember to click the button to Recalculate, which will calculate the values for 'Max' Severity per Mode and 'Low' Detection per Cause.

Filter

Most users will simply hide this optional column.

Some auto suppliers might use it for 'Special Characteristics'.

Action Priority

aka AP codes

Per Cause.

Calculated before Corrective Actions.

See rating scales on the Rating sheet.

RPN

RPN is Dead

Prior to the year 2019, most FMEA's included a 'Risk Priority Number', which was calculated as Severity * Occurrence * Detection.

Even though the word 'Priority' was in the name for 'Risk Priority Number', every FMEA text book repeated the warning that RPN was not to be used for prioritizing.

Despite those warnings that RPN ratings were not only useless, but sometimes dangerously wrong if used for prioritizing actions, the truth was (surprise, surprise) that many practitioners (incorrectly) used it that way.

So (even though you could use your user-defined columns to resurrect it), RPN is now officially dead.

RPN has been replaced by Action Priority codes that provide simple red, yellow, green signals - specifically intended to prioritize action.

See the (much more useful) rating scales on the 'Rating' sheet of your FMEA template.

FMEA Action Priority Codes

manage

FMEA Risk Management

FMEA Step 6) Risk Management

Actions Recommended — to improve Prevention or Detection

Tip: If you start with P- or D-, then you can use Excel to Filter Actions for Prevention or Detection.

Tip: If the background color is pink, it is because either:

  1. Top row per Cause can never be blank. (Can be 'None')
  2. Action is required if Priority = 1 even after Corrective Action has been taken.FMEA Team worksheet

Who is Responsible?

Tip: The dropdown list is defined on the 'Team' sheet

which also serves as your Team Attendance Log (as required by ISO)

Status

See the DV sheet to see what the codes mean.

And, like all Systems2win templates, you can define your own codes, (in ways that conditional formatting colors still work correctly with international languages).

Actions Completed — to improve Prevention or Detection

Again: If you start with P- or D-, then you can use Excel to Filter Actions for Prevention or Detection.

Optionally use the Links column to link to Pointers to Evidence.

The second Action Priority Number

is calculated only for those rows that contain a Completed Action

Links to related documents

Link Icons make it easy to link to related FMEAs, videos, Control Plans, 8D's, Design Verification Plan & Review (DVP&R), Work Instructions, and any other related documents

Tip: Use the cell above the gold headers to link to documents that are related to the entire FMEA (not just specific line items)

Tip: This column is usually outside of the Print Area, but it's Excel. You know how to change the Print Area.

Link Icons

Use your Systems2win
Link Icons
to link to related documents

User Fields

See the Sample sheet for examples of User Fields that can make your FMEA far more valuable for analyzing your data using Excel's familiar features for Filter and Pivot Tables.

Most commonly, you might Filter using the column for Product Families as a powerful way to prepare to create a new FMEA from an existing or master FMEA.


ControlPlan

FMEA Control Plan

After taking initial Corrective Actions prescribed in the PFMEA,

the next step is to use a Control Plan to more diligently control product and process characteristics that have high Severity, Occurrence, and/or Action Priority.

Tip: Use Systems2win menu > Open a Blank Sheet, then select the radio button for 'Control Plan'.

Control Plan Excel template

Sample FMEA Control Plan example

Learn more about your Systems2win Control Plan template

Control Characteristics and Methods

The 'Control Characteristics' drop down list is found on the Control Plan and FMEA templates,
and is also shared for 'Deliverables' column on the Process Flow Diagram.

'Control Characteristics' are closely related (but often not identical to) 'Potential Failure Modes' on the PFMEA.

Your lists should consider control parameters for both the product/service and the process.

Any time that the design changes

you need to update all documents related to your FMEA

For a DFMEA, this might include...

related FMEA's, Design Verification Plan, QFD, checklists, etc.

For a PFMEA, this might include...

related FMEA's, the Control Plan, work instructions, audit checklists, etc.

How to maintain Version Control

Use the Revision Log worksheet

RevLog sheet


socialize

FMEA Step 7) Communication

After your team completes all this useful work... socialize it.

Share it in PDF format... print it... email it... share it in weekly 'lunch and learn' presentations...

Share improvements from your completed actions with the teams of Inter-related FMEA's.

Perhaps use your Change Management template to ensure that you're thinking of everyone that should be included.

Important Reminder: Before you analyze, print or publish, always use the button to Recalculate.

FMEA communication

More Tips to Get the Most from your FMEA Template


filter

The most unique feature of your

Systems2win FMEA Excel Template

Excel's Filter and PivotTable features work!

Why are Filter and Pivot Tables so important?

When you need to create a new FMEA for a new product that is similar to an existing product...

You could simply Filter for what is similar, and then use that as the starting point to create your new FMEA.

Or use Pivot Tables to slice & dice your data in even more useful ways.

The trouble is that neither Filter nor Pivot Tables will work in Excel if your home-grown FMEA template uses either:

  1. Merged cells, or
  2. Data in the top cell, and then no data in the other cells beneath it (using borders to look like a merged cell)

And every Industrial Engineer knows just how impossible it is to avoid merged cells in an FMEA template. (until now)

Video: How to use Excel Filter and dropdown lists

We repeat:

With your Systems2win template —

Excel's Filter and PivotTable features work!!!

How does Systems2win accomplish such a useful feature?

(not found in any other Excel FMEA template)

Download your own free trial, and see for yourself.

How to find help for 'how we do it'

In addition to the pop-up help that appears when you click any gold column header,

when you scroll down below the Print Area in your FMEA template,
you will find 2 additional rows of help:

  1. 'Relationships Between Columns'

    Clear explanation of how each column is related to its neighboring columns

    (which is one of the most common sources of confusion when using an FMEA template)

  2. 'Repeat Data'

    Clear instructions for which columns need (or do not need) repeat data, and how to do it

FMEA repeat data

Tip: Scroll down below the Print Area to see help for which columns need Repeat Data

Live consulting and/or training is also available

from either Systems2win, or from Joe Adams of Strategic Quality, who helped to design and develop the Systems2win FMEA tools and has experience developing FMEA's for several industry-leading Fortune 500 companies.


link

Optionally Link Shared Data

There are situations where it can be very useful to link data between cells (and sheets).

For example: Whenever a Control Method is superceded with a new one, the new Control Method can be instantly updated everywhere that the old one was used.

See online training for:

  1. How to link data between cells
  2. Why it's dangerous to over-use these features to auto-populate data between related documents in ways that circumvent the 'human thinking' that those related documents are intended to trigger

On the 'Sample' sheet of your FMEA template

see the shaded cells in the 'User9' column for examples of how to optionally link cells and concatenate linked cells.

FMEA link cells

languages

FMEA in Multiple Languages

FMEA is all about foreseeing and preventing mistakes.

Learning Exercise:

Try using an FMEA in a language that you don't speak fluently, and see how that affects the number of mistakes that YOU make.

Headers and Help in Multiple Languages

Every Systems2win Excel template has extensive features to support multiple languages, including:

  1. the ability to click a button to instantly switch your template's row & column headers between English, German, Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese, French, etc.
  2. the ability to view any Systems2win training page in any language

Learn more about Systems2win's standard language features

Systems2win menu > Select Translations

Languages available for immediate delivery include:

Spanish: AMEF Análisis de modo y efecto de falla

Portuguese: Análise de Efeitos do Modo de Falha

Chinese: 失效模式效应分析

French: AMDE : Analyse des modes de défaillances et de leurs effets

German: Auswirkungsanalyse

Switch languages

Easily switch between
languages

Drop down lists in multiple languages

How to create drop down lists in multiple languages

Data in Multiple Languages

Your FMEA template goes even further...

It has special features to easily maintain your
DATA in multiple languages

Click the 'Select Language for Data' button

and now the data in your FMEA form displays your chosen language

(not just the headers)

FMEA - language of data

How to edit your data in multiple languages

In your FMEA template, scroll to the right, and you will find the 'Language Translations' section.

You can make unlimited copies of those columns — to support unlimited language translations.

Notice that each translation section has only a sub-set of the columns found on the primary FMEA.

Columns containing numbers and links are edited on the primary FMEA itself.

Those columns that contain words must be edited in the 'Language Translations' section.

If a column exists in the 'Language Translations' section...

then you must first do your editing in the 'Primary Language' section

Your Systems2win template is designed so that when you enter data in the 'Primary Language' section, it will automatically also affect the borders and cell formats for the main FMEA form, and all other Language Translations.

Repeat data, however, is not whited out for in the sections for languages other than the Primary Language - so that you can easily verify that you correctly entered the repeat data.

If a column does not exist in the 'Language Translations' section...

(because it contains numbers or links, which are the same for all languages)

FMEA - language of data

then you edit those columns in the main form.

To see your selected language in the main FMEA form…

In any Language Translation section… select the pink cell containing the name of your desired Language, then click the button to 'Select Language of Data'

Fix Row Heights

Fix Row Heights

Because different languages have different numbers of characters to communicate the same information, it is a real challenge to try to find the correct row height.

In the Systems2win menu in the Excel Ribbon bar,
select the button to 'Fix Row Heights', and notice what happens.


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Reading

Suggested Reading and Resources for

FMEA Failure Mode Effects Analysis

One way to support the free training provided on this site is to purchase your books here

To see the links to suggested readings, you might need to change your Ad Blocker to allow ads on this page

If you are an AIAG member, see our special training just for you.

Live training and consulting is available from Joe Adams of Strategic Quality,

who has served on the FMEA design teams for several Fortune 500 companies, and helped to design and develop the Systems2win FMEA template.


View this PowerPoint to learn more about the sample data that you can study and play with
on the Sample sheet of your FMEA template (download free trial)


These FMEA templates come with an entire suite of DFSS templates and Lean Six Sigma templates

 

to empower every team member to improve every process

 

 


 

 

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